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Using in landscape and for other purposes

Session 5


Perennials and geophytes selection for therapeutic horticulture

Bożena Szewczyk-Taranek ( University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

Plants play a significant role in horticultural therapy – a form of therapy that uses gardening and plant-related activities to improve the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of individuals. Plants are essential therapeutic tools that facilitate the recovery process and should be selected according to the client’s needs. Due to the diversity of possible vegetation, environmental and cultural differences, there is no single set of suitable plants. Attraction to wildlife and biodiversity enhancement are also important criteria. Plants can serve as metaphors to promote personal growth as clients draw parallels between the growth of plants and their healing journey. Qualities of flora should highlight a seasonal interest in the garden to facilitate the user’s interaction with plants, promoting “flow”, soft fascination and mindfulness. Plants are a source of “positive distraction” reducing stress and supporting relaxation, achieved by planting seasonally significant perennials, for example, spring bulbs, summer lilies, autumn asters, etc. These are all intertwined with the sensory experience. Plants with distinctive features that stimulate sight, smell, touch, hearing and taste are preferred in therapeutic horticulture. Scents of plants cause therapeutic modality in reminiscent therapy which is used for the elderly with dementia. This uses sensory stimuli to trigger memories and facilitate conversation and emotional connections in individuals with memory-related issues. In our survey, we aimed to determine the plant preferences of the aged population in Poland to facilitate their use in therapeutic gardens. Results indicate that for people over 60, the most remembered ornamental plants are: roses (67.7%), tulips (65%), daffodils (63.6%), and peonies (62%). For that reason, those species should be included in the plant selection in therapeutic gardens. A questionnaire type of research could be a standard procedure used before designing a garden that serves diverse therapeutic purposes.

Keywords: healing landscape, horticultural therapy, ornamental plants, people-plant interactions, sensory gardens


Evaluation of growth and flowering of ornamental grasses and other perennials planted in a city parks, the case
of Rabka-Zdrój

Anna Kapczyńska ( University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

Ornamental perennials are the basic plant material used in modern garden art. They give natural beauty, which is changing over time, constituting a dynamic element of the arranged space, additionally supporting the biodiversity of the place. The basis for the proper development of plants is the right selection of species to the habitat conditions. In this work, the growth and flowering of several species of ornamental grasses and other perennials planted in various locations of park in the resort town Rabka-Zdrój (Poland) were observed. In order to determine the stages of growth, development, flowering and decline, the measurements of morphological parameters were carried out throughout the growing season at two-week intervals. Each time photographic documentation was prepared to visually follow the dynamics of plant development. The observed perennials were resistant or moderately sensitive to park environmental conditions. They differed in growth and flowering dynamics, habit and height, making a different impression every week and reflecting the everchanging nature of plants from one season to another. Most of the analyzed perennials were planted at the appropriate spacing and properly selected for the cultivation place. As a result, they constituted an important aesthetic accent diversifying the park greenery throughout the vegetation season.

Keywords: herbaceous ornamentals, observation trial, Poaceae, public spaces, seasons


Analysis of decorativeness and variability of species
in “perennial meadows” of a revitalized Park Krakowski

Monika Cioć (, Przemysław Gołębiowski, Marcin Gajda, Bożena Pawłowska

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

GAJDA Architektura Krajobrazu, Brzezie, Poland

Green areas are important in the lives of residents of large cities, and public parks are a popular place for rest and recreation. In 2018, during the revitalization of the Marek Grechuta Park Krakowski in Krakow, so-called “perennial meadows” were introduced into the park undergrowth for the first time, referring to the communities of wild vegetation. 6 modern, naturalistic perennial plantations were designed, diversified in terms of plant selection, according to the system of the German designer Heiner Luz. In this project, these plantations, in the fifth year after planting, were subjected to observations, conducting year- round monitoring. The decorativeness of plantings was assessed according to the developed bonitation scale, the structure and the growth strength of individual plants was evaluated, referring to the project. The observations and analyses carried out indicate that the modern way of designing perennial meadows in the park undergrowth has proven successful. Although there are unfavorable conditions for the growth of herbaceous plants (high soil and air pollution, the presence of strongly overgrown old trees that create shade and also limit the space for root growth), planted compositions look aesthetic throughout the growing season and change throughout the year. Before typical perennials develop, bulbous plants are decorative in early spring: Galanthus nivalis, Crocus vernus, Scilla siberica. In the second half of summer and winter, ornamental grasses participate in decoration, including Calamagrostis brachytricha and Miscanthus sinensis, which grow well here. It was observed that perennials have greater growth strength and were more vigorous and healthier on better-lit sites of park. Perennials developed less in shade and near tree trunks. Astrantia major, Kamilemris incisa and Cimicifuga acerina are characterized by worse adaptation on perennial meadows. High expansiveness was observed in Geranium × magnificum, G. pratense, G. oxonianum, Myrrhis odorata, Polygonum amplexicaule and Symphytum caucasicum.


Keywords: blooming, flowerbeds, herbaceous perennials, plantings, urban greenery


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